Author: The Cornell Feline Health Center College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University.
Translation and commentary: Tipikina Halina

The Cornell Feline Health Center
College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University
The American Association of Feline Practitioners and the
Academy of Feline Medicine Advisory Panel on Feline Vaccines

The number of cases of infectious disease in cats has been reduced largely through the use of vaccines. Although there is no vaccine with 100 percent efficiency, vaccination of kittens to help them grow healthy and strong. Vaccination is not a trivial medical procedure. Rather, it is a simple procedure that initiates a complex biological process as a result of immunization and protection against an infectious agent or agents. There are many factors that must be addressed prior to vaccination, there are many complications that sometimes occur after vaccination. Since some problems may be life threatening, vaccine cats should only be undertaken with a veterinarian and under his supervision.

Vaccines and Immunization NOT THE SAME.
The concept of vaccination and immunization are often used interchangeably, but it is not. Vaccination - the process of vaccination. Immunization - the process of identification of various immune system of foreign proteins or antigens in the vaccine and antibody production and other aspects of the immune response against these antigens. This immune response protects cats against specific infectious agents. The aim is that in all cases, vaccination resulted in immunization, but in reality, there is no vaccine with 100% efficiency. Thus, only a small proportion of vaccinated cats will develop immunity.

The first type of vaccine.
Inactivated vaccines, in which infectious agents were killed in one way or another (usually chemicals), so that they can no longer infect. These vaccines are considered safe, but they require more time to prepare the immune response and they tend to give short term immunity.

The second type of vaccine.
Vaccine with modified live virus (MLV) (also known as attenuated vaccine), which contain viruses that have been modified by various methods, so that they do not cause clinical disease. Viruses in these vaccines may be reproduced in the residence and to stimulate rapid and excellent immune response. In some cases, vaccinated cats can infect other cats that are in contact with the vaccinated cats. MLV vaccines should not be administered to pregnant cats.

The third type of vaccine.
In these vaccines, part of the infectious agent is separated from the rest of the agent and serves to stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against the virus as a whole or its agent. Because these vaccines do not contain live viruses or agents, at present, this type of vaccine is considered safe.

The fourth type of vaccine.
Vaccines obtained by genetic engineering. A number of researchers working to develop genetically engineered vaccines, especially recombinant (involving genetic exchange). In the future we will probably see a lot of unique recombinant vaccines against various infectious diseases of cats.

Way to vaccination may affect the rate and degree of protection. In all cases, the vaccine should be administered in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer or your veterinarian. Feline panleukopenia (FP) vaccine can be administered intramuscularly (IM) or subcutaneous (SC) with equal effect. Some MLV-FP vaccine can be administered intranasally (IN). Most rabies vaccines administered intramuscularly (IM).
MLV vaccines are slightly more efficient when administered intramuscularly (IM), but they can be administered subcutaneously, and (SC). Vaccines recommended for intramuscular (IM) or subcutaneous (SC) administration should not be given intanazalno.
Intranasal vaccines cats dig into the nostrils. One or two drops can drip into each eye (conjunctival). These vaccines allow rapid local and systemic immunity. Owners should be aware of the fact that such a vaccination of cats can cause a runny nose and conjunctivitis, which can last from four to seven days after vaccination. Sometimes, ulcers can occur on the tongue. Vaccinated cats such vaccine viruses may be spread over a long time.

Although it may seem that the vaccination - is a simple and harmless procedure, there are some potential negative impacts and there are some precautions for vaccination of cats, to keep in mind. It is recommended to use only licensed vaccine manufacturers, the vaccine only from licensed veterinarians, under their supervision. Occasionally there will be life-threatening reactions. Before the vaccine must be purchased drugs: antihistamines, stimulants, respiratory and cardiac activity, if such a reaction occurs.
Only high-quality vaccine will benefit. Therefore, you must use only vaccines produced well-known companies, which is quality control.
The following are specific actions or possible adverse effects that may occur after vaccination of cats.
Disease from the vaccine. If the vaccine virus is not sufficiently prepared, clinical disease may occur as a result of vaccination. For example, a mild respiratory disease after intranasal vaccination, clinical disease after vaccination with rabies vaccine, live, not recommended for use in cats. Improperly prepared vaccines may contain a dangerous virus. In addition, the stress of vaccination may lead to latent infection, to all sorts of clinical disease.

Developing embryos are much more susceptible to damage from the vaccine than kittens or adult cats. Vaccination of pregnant queens some vaccines can cause maternal death, miscarriage, intrauterine embryo expansion or birth defects.

Sometimes the reactions can occur with severe and even fatal after vaccination. Need urgent assistance of a qualified veterinarian, the use of medicines.

Recently, it was noted that various types of sarcomas (some types of cancer) can develop at the site of vaccination, particularly inactivated vaccines (eg, a vaccine against leukemia virus and the vaccine against rabies virus). The appearance of tumors at the lowest estimated to be between one and four per 10,000 vaccinations, but with very serious consequences. Many researchers are actively investigating this problem. The vast majority of the risk of contact with infectious diseases are not vaccinated cats that are in free-ranging, far more risk of sarcoma, so the vaccination of cats is still highly recommended.

If not handled with the equipment, vaccines may be contaminated with bacteria, leading to abscess or bacterial infections.
Nerve injury. One wrong injections can cause damage to the peripheral ganglia, which leads to lameness or paralysis.
The vaccines do not lead to immunization by vaccinating kittens that have not yet lost the immunity derived from the mother through breast milk. Contact with the virus later lead to serious clinical disease.

The most frequent cause of unsuccessful vaccination of cats feline panleukopenia (FP) vaccine is an interference with the immune system, resulting from the mother. Nature has developed a wonderful way of temporary protection of young animals, the transfer of immunity in the form of specific antibodies from mother to newborn through the milk. Thus, the kittens have a strong immune protection (passive immunity) for several weeks, but these kittens will eventually become susceptible to infections. The level and duration of passive immunity is determined by the antibody titre (concentration of antibodies in blood serum). Most kittens remain passive immunity to eight to ten weeks of age, and sometimes kittens can not be susceptible to immunization to twelve weeks of age and older. Therefore, if FP vaccination carried out in less than twelve weeks of age, vaccination should be repeated every three to four weeks to as long as the kitten reaches the age of twelve weeks.
The same principles of colostral transfer of antibodies, and include the neutralization of respiratory viruses feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) and feline calicivirus (FCV). You can use the intranasal vaccine, if the antibody titers obtained from the mother are high. Typically, titers of antibodies to FHV-1 and FCV is much lower than the titers of antibodies to FP, passive protection against intranasal vaccines is much shorter. This protection is generally for a period not longer than five to six weeks for FHV-1 and seven to eight weeks for FCV. At the age of eight to ten weeks, the vast majority of kittens can be successfully vaccinated intranasal vaccine against FHV-I and FCV.


Feline Panleukopenia - Feline panleukopenia is caused by feline parvovirus (FPV). The virus remains infectious in the environment from several months to a year and is primarily spread by the fecal-oral route. Cages, food, water, bowls, bedding, beds, houses, and veterinarians have an important role in the transmission of infections. Clinical manifestations of FPV infection - lethargy, lack of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, fever and acute pneumonia. Mortality is highest among the young. Intrauterine infection is a common cause FPV hypoplasia of the cerebellum.
FPV vaccination is strongly recommended for all cats. Immunity to feline panleukopenia produced by antibody response to vaccination or passive transfer of antibodies from the mother. The antibodies can interfere with maternal immunization with a vaccine if the titer is high during the neonatal period. Maternal antibody titer is usually reduced to a sufficient degree to be vaccinated by 12 weeks of age. Immunity from vaccine feline panleukopenia produced an excellent and most of the vaccinated animals are completely protected from infection and clinical disease. Serologic studies indicate that a parenteral FPV vaccine stimulates the immune system for at least 7 years. Thus, after the initial series of vaccinations and booster one year later, the cat can be vaccinated no more frequently than once every 3 years.
A modified live virus (MLV) vaccine with an adjuvant in and inactivated virus for parenteral administration and intranasal MLV vaccine is available and effective. Experimental studies have shown that intranasal vaccination against canine parvovirus2 for puppies is less effective than parenteral, overcoming passive maternal immunity. The most likely reason is that fewer virus particles reach the lymphoid tissue during intranasal administration compared with parenteral route of administration. For immunization MLV parvovirus is required viral replication in lymphoid tissue. Although the studies were not conducted on cats, the same phenomenon may occur with them. Therefore, caution should be used intranasal vaccine FPV for primary vaccination of cats, especially in circumstances where the impact of FPV is likely.
Recently it was found that some cats become ill panleukopenia, were infected with the virus canine parvovirus-2b (CPV-2b). Studies show that FPV vaccines provide excellent protection not only against FPV, but also on the CPV-2b. Thus, vaccination of cats against FPV can protect them from canine parvovirus-2b.
Serious adverse reactions associated with FPV vaccines are rare. Complaints to the formation of tumors in the conduct of vaccine have been reported. Vaccination of pregnant queens FPV vaccine can cause neurological disorders in developing fetuses, the same applies to kittens vaccinated at least 4 weeks old. Thus, it is impossible to use MLV vaccines for pregnant cats and kittens younger than 1 month.

Rhinotracheitis and caliciviruses
Feline viral rhinotracheitis Feline calicivirus and infection. Feline viral rhinotracheitis, caused by feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV1), and feline calicivirus (FCV) is up 90% of all cases of infectious respiratory diseases in cats. Both viruses are found in secretions from the eyes, nose and throat of infected cats. Viruses are transmitted directly through airborne droplets, or indirectly through contaminated objects. Infected cats may develop chronic diseases, eye and nose. Latent FHV-1 infection may persist throughout life. Exacerbation may occur during periods of stress or after taking the hormones. Some cats, FCV infection of the virus, were carriers of infection for a long time (more than a year). For adult cats, this disease is less dangerous for kittens and often ends in death. Lameness and chronic inflammatory diseases have been linked to calicivirus infection and vaccination altered calicivirus vaccines. The risk of infection FHV-I and FCV is high, because both viruses are widespread in populations of cats.
Vaccination against FHV-1 and FCV is highly recommended for all cats. After 12 weeks of age antibody titers of mothers reduced sufficiently to hold parenteral immunization. Intranasal vaccine can cause conjunctival local immune response at a high titer of maternal antibodies. Serologic studies indicate that parenteral FHV-1 and FCV vaccines induce protection that lasts at least 3 years. Thus, after the initial series of vaccinations and booster one year later, the cats should be vaccinated every 3 years.
Regardless of the method of introducing FHV-1 and FCV vaccines are given a weak and short-lived protection. At best, the vaccine triggers an immune response that reduces the severity of the disease, but do not protect against infection. Currently available vaccines FCV does not protect against all types of virus.
Vaccine with a modified live virus and inactivated virus vaccines are suitable for parenteral administration (MLV), intranasal (IN) and conjunctival (IC). If the kittens are born in an environment where viral upper respiratory tract infection is endemic (for example, some kennels and shelters), the use of these vaccines can be justified. The use of such vaccines for kittens aged from 10 to 14 days in these situations is acceptable, however, vaccines that contain modified FPV antigens should not be administered to kittens younger than 4 weeks old. Adverse events associated with vaccination against FHV-1 and FCV - slight fever, sneezing, conjunctivitis, intermittent claudication, pain at the injection site. Sneezing, conjunctivitis, discharge from eyes and nose, is believed to occur more frequently with vaccines recommended for routine use. Tumor formation when administered vaccines were reported.

Rabies is transmitted mainly through bite wounds from an infected mammal. Cats are more resistant to rabies than dogs. In this case, both species are potential sources of infection for humans. Treatment becomes ineffective after the appearance of a cat's clinical signs, and is not carried out because of the high risk of contracting zoonotic infections. About all suspected and known cases of infection with rabies virus must be reported to the Department of Health. Should follow the precautionary measures and quarantine procedures stipulated by local regulations (Rabies animals. Prevention and Control).
In connection with reports of sarcoma associated with vaccination is the development of new vaccines. Evidence suggests that they are often associated with the use of vaccines against rabies and leukemia containing adjuvants [adjuvant (adjuvant) - a substance that is a nonspecific stimulator immunogenesis and sometimes having antigenic properties. Adjuvants can be inorganic (phosphates, aluminum and calcium, calcium chloride, etc.) and organic (agar, glycerol, protamines, etc.) of a substance.] Inflammatory reactions usually occur at sites of introducing adjuvant vaccine against rabies virus, so I have concerns about their possible connection between these reactions and postvaktsinatsinoznoy sarcoma. Except for the recently approved canarypox virus vectored-feline recombinant rabies vaccine (PureVax Feline Rabies Vaccine, Merial Ltd), all presented in the present market, a vaccine against rabies virus contain adjuvants. Tests on rats have shown that the incidence of inflammation caused by the recombinant product to be minimal, but the use of these vaccines will be reduced. The mechanism of formation of sarcomas associated with vaccination of cats is still unknown. The recombinant product is currently only recommended for annual use.
Vaccination against rabies is strongly recommended for all cats, and it is required by law. Currently developed a vaccine against rabies duration of immunity from one year to three years.

Infection of domestic cats feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is in the world. Modes of transmission of the virus through saliva or nasal secret as a result of prolonged intimate contact (eg, licking each other), pocus, or eating and drinking. The virus also can be transmitted through blood transfusions from infected cats, in utero or through milk. The virus is resistant to the environment, there is no effective disinfectants and drugs against this viral infection. Clinical signs of FeLV-infection in the first place, are associated with neoplasia, anemia and other illnesses as a result of vozikaet immunosuppression.
Kittens are most susceptible to infection. The body's resistance increases as they grow older. Experimental data suggest that Kittens under 16 weeks are most susceptible to infection. Adult cats relatively stable. Highest risk of infection in domestic animals exposed to free-roaming, stray and feral cats, cats living with FeLV-infected cats and cats living in households with unknown FeLV status.
A decision on vaccination against FeLV infection should be made ??on the basis of age and the risk of ill cats. Vaccination against FeLV is recommended for cats at risk of infection (for example, cats in the open-range with a negative FeLV reaction in confined spaces where there is infected cats, especially those younger than 4 months old. Vaccination is not recommended cats with minimal risk of infection, especially older 4 months old. The ability of the vaccine cause rather strong immune response is not confirmed, is under investigation. Therefore, protection from disease is to prevent FeLV contact with infected cats. Vaccination against FeLV does not diminish the importance of testing cats to identify patients. It is essential that patients cats are not in contact with other cats, especially those younger than 4 months old. Adverse reactions associated with vaccination against FeLV are expressed in local swelling or pain at the site of vaccine administration, apathy, fever, and granuloma postvaktsinatsinoznoy. Although complaints about the appearance of sarcomas of to vaccination have been reported, is the development of other vaccines. Current evidence suggests that they are often associated with the introduction of adjuvanted vaccines against FeLV and rabies virus. Vaccination is carried out only on the testimony, with an annual booster. Before vaccination cats should be tested for FeLV- infection. Only when a negative test for FeLV can be vaccinated. IFA screening test is preferred. When a method of testing of affected cats, isolate them from healthy and sick cats, vaccination should not be.

Chlamydia psittaci bacterial pathogen of the conjunctiva and respiratory tract of cats. Transmission by direct contact is less likely, the agent dies quickly in the environment. Serous conjunctivitis in the first stage can affect only one eye, is the most common clinical sign. If mild can be accompanied only sneezing and runny nose. Clinical symptoms usually appear 5-10 days after infection. Necessary to appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The disease occurs without symptoms klinichekih in 86% of cats, 14% of cats with lesions dahatelnyh ways. High levels of infection in cats in age from 5 weeks to 9 months of age. The immune response of C. psittaci vaccines, similar to FHV-I and FCV vaccines, these vaccines protect against the occurrence of clinical disease, but not from infection. The incidence of adverse reactions associated with C. psittaci vaccine is higher than that of other commonly used vaccines. The reactions are expressed in apathy, depression, anorexia, lameness and fever 7 to 21 days after vaccination. Since the symptoms associated with C. psittaci infections are relatively mild, and adverse reactions associated with use of C. psittaci vaccines cause more concern, regular vaccination against C, psittaci infection is not recommended. Vaccination should be carried out in cases where the habitat is a risk of infection. Conduct annual revaccination only in cases deemed appropriate.

Infectious peritonitis.
Feline coronaviruses (FCoV) distinguish several pathogens that have historically been grouped into two biotype: feline enteric coronaviruses (FECV), which usually causes a mild subclinical intestinal diseases, and feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), which causes feline infectious peritonitis ( FIP). Currently, any mutant versions of FIPV + FECV cats around the world, with seropositive. Transmission occurs primarily by the fecal-oral route, in circumstances in which FCoV infection is endemic (eg, in areas with large concentrations of cats), from 35 to 70% excreted in faeces of cats FCoV throughout life. Most infected cats remain healthy, although a few, typically 1-5% in the long run, ill MFP. Affected cats rarely survive, regardless of treatment. Kittens are affected more often FIP, but in any age cat susceptible. Was identified genetic predisposition, with higher incidence in certain lines.
Go considerable debate about the effectiveness of currently available vaccines MFP (Primucell-FIP, Pfizer) to prevent disease. Some studies have proven its effectiveness, while others talk about her failure. Some studies have shown an increase in antibodies after vaccination. The discrepancy in the results of research, probably due to differences in test methodology (eg, strength and dose of the virus, genetic susceptibility in experimental animals). Protection against disease has not been demonstrated in animals vaccinated under 16 weeks of age. However, most kittens are born and grew up in an environment in which FCoV infection is endemic, infected before that age. In these cases, vaccination was not effective. At the moment there is no evidence that the vaccine induces clinically relevant protection, so its use is not recommended.

Dermatophytosis cats in the first place is the result of infection with Microsporum canis. A variety of clinical manifestations, including the temporary nature of clinical illness and chronic infection with or without clinical symptoms, are zoonotic in nature. Despite the successful and relatively simple treatment of individual cats, the elimination of endemic disease - a costly, labor intensive and prolonged.
M. canis vaccine (Fel-O-Vex MC-K, Fort Dodge Animal Health), intended for use as an aid in the prevention and treatment of clinical signs associated with M. canis-infection. Vaccination is not shown to prevent infection or elimination of M. canis organisms from infected cats. Thus, routine vaccination against M. canis infection is not recommended. At the time of this writing, there had been no independent evaluation of the effectiveness of the product. Based on studies conducted by the manufacturer, it makes sense to consider vaccination as an adjunct to individual infected cats at the age of 4 months and older, in order to expedite resolution of clinical symptoms. If the vaccine triggers an immune response, the number of infectious spores can be reduced, and therefore it makes sense to consider vaccination as one component of a comprehensive program of treatment of cats living in areas where M. canis-infection is endemic. Nevertheless, the ability of this product to accelerate the elimination of endemic infection has not been confirmed. Revaccination interval is specified by the manufacturer on the label. The main adverse events associated with the use of this product are pain, temporary hair loss, as well as the formation of sterile abscesses or granulomas.

Bordetella bronchiseptica Gram-negative pathogen coccobacillus long been recognized as pathogens of respiratory diseases in several animal species. Natural route of transmission in cats - airborne. Experimental studies have shown that B. bronchiseptica may act as a primary pathogen in cats, vaccination against specific pathogens (SPF) cats to protect, which cause disease, with a temporary increase in temperature, vydeleniemi of the eyes and nose, sneezing, coughing, pulmonary rales, lymphadenopathy and lower jaw. Bronchopneumonia associated with B. bronchiseptica infection was reported in kittens and adult cats. Other factors, including nutrition, overcrowding, infection by other agents, such as FCV or FHV-1 and sub-optimal care, may affect the results of exposure.
Serological studies suggest that exposure to the organism Bordetella bronchiseptica infection is quite common. The number of infected cats varies periodically. The high seropositive percentage (often> 80%) found in cats in shelters, with respiratory problems. The lowest rates in households with multiple cats without respiratory disease, 54-55. Recently, the disease is rare. 9% of healthy cats and 14% of cats with airway disease, tested positive for the pathogen. The dependence of the incidence of cat B. bronchiseptica, living in households containing a dog with a recent history of respiratory illness.
The final diagnosis of diseases associated with B. bronchiseptica-infection may be difficult because symptoms of infection often mimic those associated with FHV-1 or FCV-infection. Diagnosis and isolation of infected B. bronchiseptica cats with severe respiratory disease is quite feasible, but there is also a cat carrier agent, in whom the disease is asymptomatic, making it difficult to establish a direct causal relationship. Diagnosis of the disease with an appropriate choice of antimicrobial drugs may involve pathogen B. bronchiseptica. But in many cases the treatment of viral upper respiratory tract infections, is limited solely to antimicrobial treatment.
Vaccine (Protex-Bb, Interval Inc) to prevent disease caused by infection with B. bronchiseptica has recently been licensed. The product contains a live, reducedvirulence culture B. bronchiseptica and recommended its use of the intranasal route for cats 4 weeks of age and older. Vaccine efficacy has not been confirmed by independent institutes. In studies conducted by the manufacturer, in cats vaccinated 4 weeks ago, were observed less severe symptoms than the control unvaccinated cats. Immune response occurs 3 weeks after vaccination.

Giardiasis - an infection of cats caused by a simple micro-organism Giardia lamblia, is associated with acute or chronic gastrointestinal illness of podklinicheskogo to heavy flow. Since the infected cysts may produce periodically diagnose G. lamblia infection is often difficult and usually requires multiple fecal examinations. Several diagnostic methods are available, including microscopic examination, the method of zinc sulfate centrifugation, using ELISA. Currently there are no approved methods of treatment of cats, although treatment is usually easier for the disease, but does not clear the infection. Effectiveness of the treatment is very short. Giardia lamblia are transmitted through feces, cysts are ingested with contaminated water, direct transmission from cat to cat, especially in crowded places (through mutual care), through contaminated containers, trays, while taking food and water. Giardiasis - recognized by zoonotic disease, but the role of cats in the spread of the pathogen has not been established. The vaccine recently licensed USDA (Fel-0-Vax Giardia. Fort Dodge Animal Health) as an aid in the prevention of disease associated with G. lamblia cysts and reduce emissions. This vaccine is composed of a number of homogeneous and chemically inactivated G. lamblia trophozoltes, and contains an adjuvant, commonly used in other feline vaccines, but, unlike the canine vaccines using killed pathogens. The vaccine is approved for use in cats 8 weeks of age and older.

At the time of this writing, the vaccine was not an independent examination of the effectiveness, but studies conducted by the manufacturer, found a significant reduction in the severity of clinical signs (diarrhea), duration of discharge of cysts, and infection, compared with animal control. Protecting sohranyaetsyane less than one year after vaccination.
Regular use of this vaccine is not recommended, because the vaccine only makes it easier for clinical disease and accelerates the process of liberation from the cysts. It is therefore reasonable to consider vaccination as part of a comprehensive program of control over the environment where the risk of G. lamblia high. For prolonged stays in the zone of risk, annual revaccination is recommended. Even after inoculation of G. lamblia, to maintain hygiene and cleanliness. The ability of this vaccine to protect against environmental influences has not been evaluated.

Purevax Feline Rabies Vaccine (Merial) - first feline recombinant rabies vaccine, manufactured without adjuvants or whole of the rabies virus, provides clean, safe and proven protection. Approved by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Minimize the reaction at the site of vaccination. Provides proven protection against rabies in adult cats and kittens. The only approved for use in cats 8 weeks of age the vaccine against rabies. Safety and efficacy are confirmed using a single dose in kittens 8 weeks of age and older. The absence of chemical adjuvants virtually eliminate chronic inflammation at the site of vaccination and the absence of other associated with the presence of adjuvants, adverse reactions. For further information please contact: Merial USA-Tel :1-800-934-4447, (888) MERIAL- 1. Fax :706-548-0608

American Association of Feline Practitioners and the Academy of Feline Medicine Advisory Panel on Feline Vaccines
Feline Health Center, College of Veterinary Medicine
Cornell University

The age at vaccination (weeks)
AGE RE-vaccination (weeks)
NEED Revaccination

Feline Panleukopenia (FP)
(1) Inactivated
(2) MLV
(3) MLV-In
8 - 10
8 - 10
8 - 10
12 -14
12 -14
SC or IM
SC or IM
1 year and then every 3 years

Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis (FRV)
(1) Inactivated
(2) MLV
(3) MLV-IN
8 - 10
8 - 10
8 - 10
12 - 14
12 - 14
12 - 14
1 year after initial vaccination series, then at 3-year intervals
SC or IM
SC or IM

VKoshachy Calicivirus (FCV)
(1) Inactivated SC or IM
(2) MLV
(3) MLV-In
8 - 10
8 - 10
8 - 10
SC or IM
SC or IM
1 year and then every 3 years
Chlamydiosis (not recommended for regular use)
(1) Live attenuated
8 - 10
8 - 10
SC or IM
(If there is a risk of contamination)

Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV)
(Only recommended for cats at risk of infection)
(1) Inactivated
SC or IM
1 year
then annually

Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP)
Not recommended

(1) Inactivated
SC or IM
1 year
then once every 3 years

(Not recommended for regular use)
SC or IM

Feline immunodeficiency virus disease (FIV)

MLV-changed - a live virus;

 Recommendations on how to vvedeniyai vaccines containing antigens from feline parvavirus, feline herpes-virus-1, feline calicivirus, and Chlamydia spp should be entered in the right shoulder, according to the manufacturer's recommendations.
Vaccines containing feline leukemia virus antigen (with or without other antigens except rabies virus antigen) should be entered in the left leg zadyuyu, according to the manufacturer's recommendations.
Vaccines containing rabies virus antigen (and any other antigens) should be entered in the hind leg, according to the manufacturer's recommendations.
For other intramuscular injections, the introduction of the rear foot should be avoided.
Other subcutaneous injections need to enter into the outer parts of the body or to the left shoulder. Interscapular and bony areas should be avoided for all injections.

CLINICAL INDICATIONS: Persistence of antibody titers against all three viruses for cats> 3 years support the recommended values, so the cat can be re-vaccinated against FPV-FHV-FCV with an interval of 3 years.

Key findings:

1. There is no vaccine to 100% - tion efficiency. Only a small percentage of cats will develop immunity. So important in the prevention of infectious diseases is the hygiene maintenance, fully balanced diet and care.

2. Should be vaccinated only after checking professionals and the health of your cat at the vet, check antibody levels.

3. Vaccination of cats aged 18 weeks was not effective. The reason - the presence of antibodies in the blood of kittens received on the first day of life when taking maternal colostrum. On the second day after birth, kittens lose their ability to absorb large protein molecules. Gradually, these antibodies are destroyed. At 6 weeks of them - 75% in 9 weeks - 60% in 16 weeks - 40%, and 18 weeks - 5%. Antibody levels even in kittens from the same litter is different.

4. Regardless of the method of introducing FHV-1 (herpes virus) and FCV (kalitsiviroz) vaccines provide a weak and short-lived protection. At best, the vaccine triggers an immune response that reduces the severity of the disease, but do not protect against infection. Currently available vaccines FCV does not protect against all types of virus.

5. Since there is no evidence of an independent medical examination of the effectiveness of vaccines against infectious peritonitis, dermatophytosis, leukemia, imunodefitsita, bordeteleza, giardiazisa and chlamydia, it is recommended to vaccinate only against panleukopenia, rhinotracheitis, kalitsiviroza scheme: Minimum 8-10 weeks (minimum age) with booster 4 weeks, then after 12 months and then every 3 years and the rabies is not earlier than 12 weeks, then 64 weeks, then 12 months, then 1 every 3 years. Quarantine after vaccination two weeks. So the minimum age for kittens, fully vaccinated against panleukopenia, rhinotracheitis kalitsiviroza and can not be less than 14 weeks and 64 weeks need to re-vaccinated against rabies. And the age of the kittens fully vaccinated not only from panleukopenia, rhinotracheitis and kalitsiviroza, but rabies can not be less than 66 weeks.

6. The use of vaccines with adjuvants and whole virus can lead to serious complications. Therefore it is better to use recombinant vaccines without adjuvants. There are already created the first vaccine containing no adjuvant - is Purevax Feline Rabies Vaccine (Merial) - first feline recombinant rabies vaccine, manufactured without adjuvants or whole of the rabies virus, provides clean, safe and proven protection. Approved by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Minimize the reaction at the site of vaccination. Provides proven protection against rabies in adult cats and kittens. The only approved for use in cats 8 weeks of age the vaccine against rabies. Safety and efficacy are confirmed using a single dose in kittens 8 weeks of age and older. The absence of chemical adjuvants virtually eliminate chronic inflammation at the site of vaccination and the absence of other associated with the presence of adjuvants, adverse reactions.
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